Wednesday, April 27, 2011

rsyslog config reload - random thoughts

This blog post is more or less a think tank, maybe even an utility to clear my mind. Please note that I am not talking about anything that is right now present in rsyslog. I am not even saying that it will be in the near future. But I'd like to think a bit about alternatives on the route to there.

Let's assume rsyslog shall have two abilities:
  • use different config languages
  • dynamically reload a config without a full restart (thus applying a delta between new and old config)
In any case, the usual approach is to have an object representing a full configuration. This is an in-memory object. Usually, it is created during parsing the configuration file(s). During that parsing, nothing of the new config is actually carried out, just the in-memory presentation build. In that model, it would also be possible to have several fully populated config objects in core at the same time. The important thing to note is that none of them actually affects the current system - they are just loaded and ready to use.

Usually, in such a design, there is one thing that is called the "running conf". This configuration is the one the system actually uses for processing.

So how is a new configuration activated? In a first step, the config parsers create an in-memory object. Once this is done, that object is a candidate config, one that could be activated. To actually activate it, the candidate config is loaded as running config. During that process, all the settings are applied and services are started. Please note that a dynamic config reload can be done by first creating a delta between the candidate config and the current running config. This delta can then be used to keep the currently existing config running, but just modify it so that it is equivalent to the candidate config. This process can be less intrusive than shutting down the running config and restarting it based on the candidate config. As an example, a rsyslog system may have several hundered incoming TCP connections open. If the delta is just the addition of a new output file, there is no need to shut down these TCP connections as part of the (delta-driven) candidate config activation. Whereas, if no delta were to be used, all connections would need to be shut down and re-established after restart. There is obviously benefit in delta-based configuration apply. However, it should be noted that there are many subtle issues associated with creating and applying the delta.

Thinking about such a loaded/candidate/running config system for rsyslog, there is one overall issue that complicates things: loadable modules! Each module not only provides extra functionality, it also provides a set of configuration settings to modify its functionality. As such, we have a problem with config parsing: in order to fully parse a config file, we actually need to load the module as part of config processing. Or more precisely, we need to load its configuration file processor. However, it does not make sense to split each module into a config file processor and the actual module, at least I think so. Splitting them up would make things over-complex IMHO. However, we must demand that a module, in its config processing code, must not do anything other then creating configuration objects. Most importantly, it must not start any service or act out any non-config related activity. If it would do so, it would possibly affect the current running configuration. Also, config processing does not necessarily mean that the config will actually be activated, so the module must not assume that its processing will ever be called. As a side-note, this is one of the issues with the current legacy configuration system (as seen in all versions prior to v6 and early v6 versions).

Rsyslog traditionally keeps a list of loaded modules. Modules are added to that list when they are loaded inside the configuration system. During system startup, that very same list is also used to activate services inside the module. So that single list serves both as
  • a registry of loaded modules (e.g. to know what is already available and what needs to be unloaded)
  • a registry of modules required to for configuration
Both functions are tied together into a single list because rsyslog currently has only the concept of a single configuration, and not a candidate/running (multi-)config system. For the latter, it is necessary to differentiate between the two cases:

As we need to load modules during config parsing, we still need a single global list that keeps track of modules already present inside the system. Please note that with a multi-config system, a module that is first "loaded" inside a currently being parsed configuration file may actually already be loaded inside the system. In that case, a duplicate load must be avoided and the already existing module be used. The global, config-independent list is required to support this functionality.

On the other hand, such a global list can no longer be used to activate services for a specific config. This is easy to see when we have a config A which uses e.g. a TCP listener and we have a config B which does not. If B is activated, the TCP listener shall obviously not be activated. As such we need a dedicated, config-specific list of modules that are part of the current configuration. Let's call this one the "config module list" and the other one the "loaded module list".

The loaded module list is than just use to keep track of which modules are loaded. Also, it will/can be used to locate a module, so that global functions (like the config parser) can be found and carried out. Note that I call the config parser global, not config-specific. The reason is that the config parser does not take a config instance as input, but rather has no input (other than the config language) but has the config instance as output. As such, it emits config specific data, but does not require it for processing. So it is global.

The config module list in contrast must hold all config specific data elements for the module (most importantly the module specific config instance itself). The config module list is to be used for all config-specific actions. For example, it will be used to activate a module's services when the candidate config becomes a running config (maybe via a delta-apply process).

Note that on-demand module unload can be done via reference counting, which is already implemented in rsyslog. When a module is put onto a config module list, the count is incremented. If it is removed from such a list (usually because the in-memory config is destroyed), the count is decremented. An unload happens if the reference count reaches zero. If the module would be required by later processing another config, that would trigger a reload just as if the module had never before been loaded.

Note that a clearly defined and implemented split in global vs. configuration specific functionality is of vital importance for a multi-config system. This probably has some subtle issues as well. Right out of my head, I can think of the problem of some potentially global configuration settings (a term that seems to contradict itself in this context - just think a bit about it...). For example, we have the module search path, which tells us from where to load modules. With different configs, we can potentially have different module search pathes. That, in turn, can load to modules with the same name being loaded from different locations. That means we could potentially have different functionality, including different sets of config parameters (!) in the system at the same time. This could lead to some hard to diagnose issues. So it looks necessary to have the ability to load the same module via different pathes concurrently, and apply only the "right" module to the config in question. Looking at the current code base, implementing this would be even harder than just splitting out the global/config-specific lists. Maybe this would be something that shall be added at a later stage, *if* at all we take the path down that road. Also, there may be other issues along the way that I do not currently envision...
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